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Referencing An Exhibition Catalogue Essay

Writing a Museum Catalog


These OWL resources provide guidance on typical genres with the art history discipline that may appear in professional settings or academic assignments, including museum catalog entries, museum title cards, art history analysis, notetaking, and art history exams.

Contributors:Margaret Sheble
Last Edited: 2016-06-02 03:42:54

A museum catalog is typically a book written in regards to a current exhibition. For example, an exhibition of Victorian paintings concerning the legend of King Arthur could be on display at the British Art Museum. The title could be: The Marriage of History and Legend: The Victorian Revival of King Arthur. While the museum exhibit itself might have wall text with a brief introduction to the exhibit as well as having text panels for each piece, anyone wanting more information on the theme of the exhibit might be interested in purchasing a catalog.

Title Page & Table of Contents

The title page of a museum catalog is crucial – you need to think of an image that completely encompasses the theme of your exhibition. Many times the more famous or iconic work of art in the exhibition is on the title page with the title. For The Marriage of History and Legend: The Victorian Revival of King Arthur an image of King Arthur pulling the sword out of the stone would be the best candidate in this regard.

Always provide a table of contents for the museum catalog. Include the introduction, main scholarly essays, a list of the work of arts, notes/bibliography section.

Museum Gallery Guide

Depending on the scope of the project one might choose to provide a gallery guide for your audience – a visual representation of where the pieces will be on display. Having an exhibit in a large space could lead individuals to find specific works of art they might want to see, whereas a smaller space means that a guide would not be necessary.  

Include visuals of the exhibit space, an outline of the shape of the objects and where they are located, including building structures such as exit signs, and a key for your user.

Museum Catalog Introduction

Museum catalogs begin with an introductory essay to the theme of the exhibition. Often parts of the introduction are reprinted and displayed with the exhibition itself while the longer introduction is contained in the catalog.

Approaching the introduction to the exhibition is similar to tackling any typical research essay. First, grab the audience’s attention and provide some sort of thesis statement concerning the exhibition. What is the main goal of the exhibition? To back up a thesis statement consider what piece of art to include. The pieces of work on display do not exist in a vacuum. Similar to providing textual quotes to argue a literary essay, art historians use ‘art’ as their evidence to argue their thesis as well as providing primary and secondary sources. It is best to introduce some of these major works of art in the introduction. The following examples include an introductory grader and the thesis or purpose of the exhibition:

Grabber: At the end of the legend made most famously by Thomas Malory in 1469, King Arthur lies in a bloody field with a broken body and spirit…The tragic story of Arthur, frequently referred to as The Once and Future King, is a story with no definite ending. Subsequently, the legend is reinvented countless times, often during times in history when the mythology can be re-defined to fit into modern context.

Thesis: The museum exhibit titled The Marriage of History and Legend: The Victorian Revival of King Arthur surveys Victorian England’s fascination with the medieval past as seen through the art movement of the Pre-Raphaelites, the Gothic Revival, and Romanticism. Queen Victoria is studied in association with the ideas of a model monarchy and the ideal relationship expected between the sexes. Along with those ideas, the exhibit scrutinizes the dangers associated with women who tried to break away from their traditional roles.  Lastly, the exhibit focuses on the Arthurian legend becoming something “real” and tangible to which the everyday individual can truly relate and aspire to.

Another strategy to consider in an introduction is the use of segments. Many times an introduction can be broken into segments – the main point of the introduction is to introduce the focal pieces of the exhibition and how they relate to the theme of the exhibition. 

Segments for this examplewould consist of a few pages to discuss the Pre-Raphaelites, Gothic Revival, Romanticism, Queen Victoria, Albert the Good, and Arthurian character descriptions. These topics can be discussed furthermore in the actual focal pieces but by providing information in the introduction more of your analysis can focus on the art piece and only mentioning historical context – but that is up to your own discretion.  If you mention a main work of art in the introduction and discuss later in the catalog it is best to write [Figure 1] and when you cite the work of art provide before the information [Fig 1], etc.

Typically pieces that are not on display but are relevant to the exhibition can be cited in this section. For example – when discussing Victorian art culture in relation to King Arthur it would be important to discuss Gothic architecture and then provide an image as an example. The introduction should provide historical and thematic context for the exhibit.

Museum Catalog Entry

Depending on the project a museum catalog will either contain small academic essays or decide to focus on the pieces of work in the exhibition. In the case of academic essays just keep in mind that catalogs typically focus on ‘mini themes’ in the exhibit. For The Marriage of History and Legend: The Victorian Revival of King Arthur it would be beneficial to have one essay on Tennyson’s literary work  that would then contain pieces of art work (mostly in the exhibition but some can be provided as outside examples) and how Tennyson’s work relates to the theme of the exhibit.

If you want to just focus on art pieces and not academic essays, catalog entries are typically no more than 500 words and include a brief historical scope of the piece as well as a formal analysis of the piece.

For information on how to cite a work of art in MLA, see the OWL page MLA Works Cited: Other Sources.

Catalog Entry Example:

Edward Burne-Jones, The Beguiling of Merlin, 1874-76. Oil on Canvas. Board of the National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside (Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight)

A contrasting Vivien from the time is the Edward Burne-Jones version titled The Beguiling of Merlin, in which his Vivien again takes the name Nimue. In this version, Burne-Jones depicts Nimue as a maiden striving to protect her virtue. She is seen more as an anguished deity than a demonic villainess (Silver, 258). Her costume is typical of a Greek goddess and she wears a serpent headdress similar to Medusa. The serpentine forms of her snaky headdress are repeated in the folds of her indigo dress, in the roots of the trees, and “branches while like tentacles surround the failing man.” (Whitaker, 245) The model for Merlin was the American journalist W.J. Stillman whose face was damaged in a childhood accident, making his hair unusually white for his age. Nimue was Maria Zambaco, who Edward Burne-Jones was deeply in love with; when their relationship was over, Burne-Jones was depressed for many years, and Zambaco was suicidal. In a letter written during 1893, Burne-Jones wrote to his friend Helen Gaskell saying, “I was being turned into a hawthorn bush in the forest of Broceliande- every year when the hawthorn buds it is the soul of Merlin trying to live again the world and speak- for he left so much unsaid” (245). Vivien stands in the foreground, a dominant position that is usually reserved for men. She holds in her hand Merlin’s book of spells, towering over Merlin who cowers under her powerful gaze. Burne-Jones uses his art to express a psychological problem of an artist who is “reduced to impotence by a woman’s supremacy and his own lust” (245).

Works Cited

Silver, Carole “Victorian Spellbinders: Arthurian Women and the Pre-Raphaelite Circle,” in The Passing of Arthur: New Essays in Arthurian Tradition (New York: Garland Pub., 1988), 257.

Whitaker, Muriel A. The Legends of King Arthur in Art, 245.


Make sure to include a bibliography for a complete work of artwork used and cite any primary or secondary sources used in your research.

This guide is sourced from the Style Guide for Art History Essays and Theses by Dr David R. Marshall of the School of Culture and Communication.

The style given here is based on those commonly used for exhibition catalogues. The essential feature is that every footnote reference, including the first, takes the short form (Smith 2000), and that this short form is used as a label in the bibliography. The formatting is a variant of the Cambridge style.


Download the EndNote style file Exhibition Catalogue Style (for Art History).

You must enter footnote information in the Label field of the EndNote reference template:

  • Enter author and date in the following manner: Wittkower 1961
  • If there is more than one author, enter the names in one line separated by a comma.
  • Do not use the Label field of the EndNote reference template for other comments.


Footnote numbers should be placed without brackets slightly above the line20 (superscript) at the end of the phrase or sentence or paragraph to which they refer. If for some reason you are unable to produce superscript numbers, it is an acceptable alternative to place footnote numbers in brackets on the line (20) at the end of the phrase or sentence or paragraph to which they refer.

Footnotes are to be numbered consecutively throughout the thesis, and placed at the foot of the page to which they refer:

20. Wittkower, 1961, pp. 160-63.

  • Footnote number: 20.
  • Label - comma between author and date: Wittkower, 1961,
    (For all references, including the first , use the label)
  • Page numbers - 'p.' for a single page reference, or 'pp.' for a multiple one: pp. 160-63.

Successive references

Do not use ibid., loc. cit. etc.

If there two successive references are to the same publication, simply repeat the label:

21. Wittkower, 1997, pp. 8-10.
22. Wittkower, 1997, p. 11.

Referring to a footnote

If you are referring to a footnote, set out with both page number where the footnote appears and the footnote number:

23. Wittkower, 1997, p. 462 note 67.

Catalogue entries

In referring to catalogue entries, give both page number and catalogue number:

24. Wittkower, 1997, p. 462, cat. 33.


Your Bibliography (at the end of the essay or thesis) must include all the sources to which you refer in your text.

Fields of a book in a bibliography

Wittkower, 1961: Rudolf Wittkower, Bernini. The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque, London: Phaidon, 1961.

Wittkower, 1961:
This is the label field , of the kind employed in exhibition catalogues. This is set in bold for easy recognisability. Note that a colon is the separator. Because exhibition catalogues often have huge numbers of references, in a great diversity of items (essays, catalogue entries, etc.) all these items use short citations (labels) followed by page numbers and so forth, with the full bibliographic details in a general bibliography at the end of the book. The label can be added to an EndNote reference by filling out the field called 'Label'. This is done manually. In principle, you can label the item any way you like, though normally it is the author, or authors (to a maximum of 3), followed by a comma and the date. You can use labels for archival sites.

Rudolf Wittkower,
This is the author field , with first name first. Note that the separators between all fields except label and author, and place and publisher, is a comma.

Bernini. The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque,
This is the title field , and is in italics. If the title is in two parts, as here ('Bernini' is the first part 'The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque' is the second) the separator should be either a full stop, as here, or a colon.

London: Phaidon,
These are the place and publisher fields . Note that the separator between place and publisher is a colon. As a rule, include the publisher, but sometimes this is not practicable. Try to be as consistent as possible.

This is the year field . It is normally the last item in a bibliography reference, and so ends with a full stop.

Note that page numbers are not used for full book references in a bibliography, only for book sections or journal articles. (They are always used in footnotes, however.)

Additional fields of a journal article in a bibliography

Turner, 1979: James Turner, 'The Structure of Henry Hoare's Stourhead', Art Bulletin, 21, no. 1, 1979, pp. 68-77.

'The Structure of Henry Hoare's Stourhead',
This is the article title field . It is always enclosed in inverted commas, not italics. Do not confuse this with the journal title.

Art Bulletin,
This is the journal title field , and is always in italics.

This is the journal volume field . Do not prefix it with 'vol.' or anything else. Use Arabic numerals, not Roman.

no. 1,
This is the issue field . It may be 'January' or something similar as well. Normally it is sufficient to omit this and simply use the journal volume field, although for newspapers and other periodicals not normally consulted in bound sets it should be included.

pp. 68-77.
This is the pages field . Use 'p.' for a single page and 'pp.' for a range. Do not use 'pg.' or, in this style, omit the 'p.' Note these conventions for abbreviating number ranges:

  • pp. 68-77.
  • pp. 168-77. i.e. repeat only the last two numbers, but
  • pp. 107-9. i.e. do not have a loose '0' for numbers under 10.

Ordering the bibliography

  • The bibliography is organised alphabetically. If, on the advice of your supervisor, your topic requires a bibliography organised by subject, please discuss the most appropriate methods of citation with your supervisor.
  • The bibliography includes every item in the footnotes. Archival sources, interviews etc., should be included within the alphabetical listing of the bibliography.
  • N.B. The bibliography need not be annotated for theses.

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