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Reference Essays Harvard Style

Harvard is a commonly used method of referencing, which uses the Author-Date system.

 

Which Harvard style?

Note: Harvard has been adapted to suit many different publication styles. The style used in this guide follows the standard prescribed by the following manual:
Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.This is the official style followed in most Australian Government publications.

 

Which style does my Faculty or School use?

Some Schools require a different style from the one outlined here. Use the citation style  required by your Faculty or School.

 

Why Reference your sources?

It is important to reference the sources you use for essays and reports, so that the reader can follow your arguments and check your sources.  It is essential to correctly acknowledge the author when quoting or using other people’s ideas in your work.

 

How do I use Harvard?

 

 

  1. In-text citations are made like this

 

Paraphrasing and in-text citations

Example
The point made by an analytic philosopher (O'Connor 1969, p. 32) is that values cannot be justified in this way. However Kneller (1963b, p. 102) insists that the theorist will inevitably be involved in value claims. 

 

Note: Page, chapter or section numbers may be included in the in-text citation if the cited work is long and the information helps the reader locate the relevant information.

When the authors name is mentioned in-text (eg. Kneller in the example above) add year and page numbers only to the in-text reference.

Entries that have the same author and year are noted by adding a, b, c etc to the year, both in-text eg. Kneller (1963b, p. 102) and in the Reference List (see entries in Reference List below).

 

Direct quotes and in-text citations 

Examples:
‘Having a solid plan as part of research design is essential’ (Hatch 2002, p. 46).
or
Hatch (2002, p. 46) believes ‘having a solid plan as part of research design is essential.’

 

 Note: Always include page numbers when citing a quotation and enclose the quote in single quotation marks.

 

Block quotes and in-text citations

Example:

Inductive analysis is discussed:
            Inductive thinking proceeds from the specific to the general.  Understandings are generated by starting with specfic
          elements and finding connections among them.  To argue inductively is to begin with particular pieces of evidence,
          then pull them together into a meaningful whole.  Inductive data analysis is a search for patterns of meaningful data so
          the general statements about phenomena under investigation can be made (Hatch 2002, p. 161).

 Note: Place a quotation of 30 or more words in your work as a free standing block.  These quotes are usually indented eg. 5 spaces and are in a smaller font eg. 1 pt smaller than the surrounding text.  Do not enclose the quote in quotation marks.

 

  1. Reference lists, at the end of your paper, are made like this (arrange your list alphabetically by author).


Hatch, JA 2002, Doing qualitative research in education settings. State of , .

Kneller, JP 1963a, Is logical thinking logical? Ponsonby & Partridge, Dubbo.

-----1963b, ‘Thinking and logical interaction’, Brain Logic, vol. 257, no. 4, pp. 54-62.

O'Connor, DJ 1969, An introduction to the philosophy of education, Routledge & Kegan Paul, .

[See the sample Reference list].

Why do I Need to Cite?

Harvard referencing can be a confusing task, especially if you are new to the concept, but it’s absolutely essential. In fact, accurate and complete referencing can mean the difference between reaching your academic goals and damaging your reputation amongst scholars. Simply put - referencing is the citing of sources you have utilised to support your essay, research, conference or article etc.

Even if you are using our Harvard style citation generator, understanding why you need to cite will go a long way in helping you to naturally integrate the process into your research and writing routine.

Firstly, whenever another source contributes to your work you must give the original author the appropriate credit in order to avoid plagiarism, even when you have completely reworded the information. The only exception to this rule is common knowledge - e.g. Barack Obama is President of the United States. Whilst plagiarism is not always intentional, it is easy to accidentally plagiarize your work when you are under pressure from imminent deadlines, you have managed your time ineffectively, or if you lack confidence when putting ideas into your own words. The consequences can be severe; deduction of marks at best, expulsion from college or legal action from the original author at worst. Find out more here.

This may sound overwhelming, but plagiarism can be easily avoided by using our Harvard citation generator and carrying out your research and written work thoughtfully and responsibly. We have compiled a handy checklist to follow whilst you are working on an assignment.

How to avoid plagiarism:


  • Formulate a detailed plan - carefully outline both the relevant content you need to include, as well as how you plan on structuring your work

  • Keep track of your sources - record all of the relevant publication information as you go (e.g. If you are citing a book you should note the author or editor’s name(s), year of publication, title, edition number, city of publication and name of publisher). Carefully save each quote, word-for-word, and place it in inverted commas to differentiate it from your own words. Tired of interrupting your workflow to cite? Use our Harvard referencing generator to automate the process

  • Manage your time effectively - make use of time plans and targets, and give yourself enough time to read, write and proofread

  • When you are paraphrasing information, make sure that you use only your own words and a sentence structure that differs from the original text

  • Save all of your research and citations in a safe place - organise and manage your Harvard style citations.

If you carefully check your college or publisher’s advice and guidelines on citing and stick to this checklist, you should be confident that you will not be accused of plagiarism.

Secondly, proving that your writing is informed by appropriate academic reading will enhance your work’s authenticity. Academic writing values original thought that analyzes and builds upon the ideas of other scholars. It is therefore important to use Harvard style referencing to accurately signpost where you have used someone else’s ideas in order to show that your writing is based on knowledge and informed by appropriate academic reading. Citing your sources will demonstrate to your reader that you have delved deeply into your chosen topic and supported your thesis with expert opinions.

Here at Cite This For Me we understand how precious your time is, which is why we created our Harvard citation generator and guide to help relieve the unnecessary stress of citing. Escape assignment-hell and give yourself more time to focus on the content of your work by using Cite This For Me citation management tool.

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