PPT from the introductory lesson on manufacturing: Industry 1 This includes details about the Toyota factory in Burnaston, near Derby. (Opened in 1992.) Basically, what has changed is as follows:
- Toyota has announced new long-term investment in Burnaston
- The Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) platform, which involves standardising engines and components across all its models, means a new structure for the industry, which needs to be closely examined.
Toyota Burnaston plant
Volkswagen Bratislava plant
Case Study: the car industry in UK and Slovakia
Start with the case study of Slovakia motor industry on page 351 in the book. Update it and expand it making a comparison between the Hyundai 2006 and Toyota 1992 plants in the UK.
Automotive industry in the new EU states: Slovakia (PDF file) Slovakia_country_profile
KIA motors website: The Slovak factory is Kia’s only European manufacturing plant. “Located in a vast industrial complex extending over 223 hectares in Zilina (the largest town in hilly North West Slovakia), the plant employs around 3,500 people with more than 95% of all being the citizens of Slovakia.” Five other company plants are located in South Korea, two in China (with one additional being under construction) and one in the USA.
The 1.2 billion Euro Zilina plant
Toyota production in the UK
Post-Brexit situation needs exploring also:
Case study: Airbus A380 production
The details for this study are all on the Geographypods website: http://www.geographypods.com/32-industrial-systems.html
This is a study of a “truly global manufacturing operation” put together by Matthew Podbury, a Geography teacher working in Toulouse where the assembly of Airbus A380 is centred. The production chain is all over the place: as Matthew said to me, “It is pretty insane what they do to make an A380!” This material is geared to GCSE level case study, but we can also use it for A-level to examine linkages.
The following five points summarize
the main issues:
1. Interfirm transactions that are small in scale usually incur high costs per unit of distance. The mutual proximity of firms in networks made up of transactions like these is an important factor in keeping costs down.
2. Dense local labour markets represent spatial concentrations of job seekers and
job vacancies, and high levels of mutual proximity make it relatively easy to
acquire, process, and act on information about relevant opportunities.
3. Transactional relations also involve flows of certain kinds of business information
or knowledge spillovers. Interdependencies of these sorts are all the more important because they tend to underpin many small-scale processes of learning and innovation whose cumulative effects greatly reinforce local competitive advantages.
4. The clustering of many different producers can significantly enhance the
formation of beneficial business alliances and organizations that help to augment
local competitive advantage.
5. Significant economies can be obtained with large localized clusters of firms in the sharing of infrastructure with many positive effects on local competitive
Reference: Economic Geography 79(3): 295–319, 2003. © 2003 Clark University. http://www.clarku.edu/econgeography
Presentation on theme: "Economic Change Economic locations."— Presentation transcript:
1 Economic ChangeEconomic locations
2 Lesson ObjectivesTo understand the factors affecting the location of primary, secondary and tertiary activities
3 The location of primary industry
4 Location factors:Nearly every economic activity is found in a particular place for good reasons:Labour supplyAccessibilityRaw materialsDistance to marketGovernment incentivesPower supply1. Explain why each of these may be important.2. Would certain factors be more important for different sectors of industry? Why?Use page 161 of Tomorrow’s geography for extra information
5 Location of a primary industry – China Clay, Cornwall
China clay, also called kaolin, had been mined in Cornwall for 250 years. A man called William Cookworthy had noticed the fine porcelain that had come to Europe from China and decided that he had spotted a gap in the market. He began to search for a material that resembled the kaolin used in China to make the porcelain and in 1745, at Tregonning Hill, he found it - a type of decomposed granite which was like a fine talcum powder in texture. By the mid 19th Century, tonnes of china clay were being mined in the St Austell area every year, much of it for export. Seven thousand people were employed. The hamlet of West Polmear, a tiny place of just nine people, grew to a population of three thousand as a result of the jobs in the area.There was an environmental impact, however. Every tonne of china clay mined created five tonnes of waste, which was piled up and nicknamed the Cornish Alps. By 1910, one million tonnes of china clay was mined, 75% for export, so you can see how fast the industry had grown. In 1999, the company mining the deposits was taken over by a French company called Imerys, which has moved most of its production to Brazil where its costs are lower and its profits are higher. Most of the Cornish china clay pits are now idle and the total number of people employed is about a thousand, a fraction of what it had been. (In 1974, it had been estimated at about 6000 workers.) The former workers left unemployed would be classified as a negative social impact.The Eden Project, has transformed a 160 year old pit into a tourist attraction, packed full of exotic plants arranged in biomes to recreate their normal climate. It opened in March 2001 and had received its 10 millionth visitor by 2008. Not only did the pit provide the land and the setting, Imerys provided the sand that was dug into the soil to improve its drainage. Since its opening, the Eden Project has hosted events such as pop concerts, popular with locals and visitors alike, a positive social impactOther leisure attractions making good use of the Cornish china clay landscape are the Clay Trails, a series of bike paths established in 2005. These are also popular with dog walkers and horse riders. These improvements to the landscape would be classified as positive environmental impacts.
7 Primary industry: Factors
Main factor: Physical factor Availability of raw materials Economic factors Market and accessibility
8 Secondary Industry
9 Why did Toyota locate at Burnaston, near Derby?
1- Accessibility Excellent transport routes. On the junction of two main trunk roads. This allows easy transportation of parts and the finished product throughout the UK 2- Incentives Derbyshire County Council offered to buy a £20 million stake in the company. It also pledged to improve the transport infrastructure. 3- Room for expansion Location on the edge of the city. Greenfield site (an area on the edge of the city, which has never been developed in any way) with ample room for expansion. Large area of land: 280 hectares 4- Suppliers of component parts The area has a tradition in car manufacturing. There are many suppliers of component parts and engineering components 5- Attractive location for managerial workers Attractive village location such as Findern for managerial workers. The Peak District National Park, which is closed by, has many opportunities for leisure activities. C-Location of tertiary industry Less dependent on geographical factors. Given good transport, energy and communications, tertiary companies can locate anywhere.
12 Location of secondary industry
Example of a 6 mark question…. Explain the reasons for the location of an activity in the secondary sector. (6)
13 David Lloyd Gym- What 3 Human factors and 3 physical factors can you work out for the gym locating here?
14 Tertiary Industry
15 Case Study: Great North Leisure park- David Lloyd gym
Location- get a sketch map- annotate itWhat’s there?Physical factors for its location (inc 2 facts)Human factors for its location (inc 2 facts)Explain the factors that affect the location of tertiary industry. Use an example in your answer. (6)
16 The tertiary sector
21 What is high-tech industry?
High-technology industry involves a highly-skilled workforce and its products require a high proportion of research and development.High-technology industry is relatively footloose since access to raw materials is not very important. The ‘raw materials’ that are required are usually lightweight electronic components.
22 Examples of high-tech industry
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rbaLuovEnrmiortencRshaere dna dpvlentmeoeFactors attractinghigh tech industrycsAcesputRnietaoGvtmnoerne ciploeis
24 Research and development
LabourEnvironmentResearch and developmentFactors attractinghigh tech industryAccessReputationGovernment policies
25 Match these statements to the location factors attracting hi-tech industries
Near to, and links with, a top class universityPlace ofhigh-tech excellenceSupply of highlyqualified andadaptable labourAvailability of good transport networks, raw materials, services and marketsAttractivelocation in whichto live and workNational and local governmentsencourageinvestment andenterprise
26 High-tech industry on the M4 corridor
Hotspot areas: Bristol, Cotswolds, Swindon, Aldermaston and Heathrow Airport
27 Examination questionHigh-tech companies locate along the M4 corridor; for example, Vodaphone has its head office in Newbury. Although they are relatively footloose as they do not need large amounts of raw materials, they still favour certain locations – easy access for the workforce, components and finished products are required. The M4 provides a direct route to Heathrow Airport and also links easily to the M5. There is also an intercity rail link from London to South Wales. They require a highly-skilled workforce and like to share ideas and knowledge. Therefore they locate near universities such as Reading or Bristol. An attractive environment such as is offered by the nearby Cotswolds is also an advantage.
28 Explain how the factors affecting the location of industry can change over time. (3)
29 PlenaryThis exercise can be used to develop understanding of industrial location factors. Individuals or groups could decide on the best location for each industry and then this could lead to a class discussion: Do all groups have the same answers? If not, why not? What location factors are important for each industry? Which are the ‘best’ sites for each industry and why?More detail on the location of the steel industry and high-tech industry can be found in the separate presentations.