Music video emerged as the object of academic writing shortly after the introduction in the United States of MTV (Music Television) in 1981. From the beginning, music video was claimed as the focus of academic study by different disciplines or subfields, leading to evident tensions and territorial disputes in early scholarship. For television scholars in the 1980s, music television networks (such as MTV) were seen to confirm the sense that television, with its fragmentary forms and repetitive structures, was the quintessentially postmodern medium. Scholars of popular music, less drawn to claims about music video’s postmodern character, were more concerned with the fate of music within a cultural form that bound it to moving images. This emphasis on image, some argued, threatened the autonomy of music and facilitated its commodification and co-optation. As academic writing on music video developed in the 1980s and 1990s, it followed a range of directions corresponding to different disciplines and specializations. Scholars of media economics and institutions studied the ways in which music video production had come to be integrated within the functioning of the music industries. At the same time, and amid widespread public outcry over the sexual and violent content of music video, numerous studies examined the treatment of women or racial minorities within music videos. Some of this work was interpretive or qualitative in character, drawing on the increasingly popular methodologies and political impulses of cultural studies, which spread across the humanities during this period. Other academic studies of music video content were quantitative, involving content analyses of selected samples of music videos or statistical measurements of the responses of viewers to particular kinds of content in controlled situations. As the novelty of music videos declined in the late 1990s and their distribution came to favor the Internet more than specialty television networks, the popularity of music video as a distinct object of study likewise seemed diminished. This decline in the influence or novelty of music video networks was hastened as well by the move of networks such as MTV toward “long-form” programming (such as reality programs or documentary series), which reduced the time devoted to video clips. Within scholarship on music video, the most notable trend since 2000 has been to situate music videos within broader contexts involving the audiovisual treatment of music. A range of works have placed music videos within a broader history of encounters between music and audiovisual entertainment media such as cinema or television. Among the most important of these studies have been those that study the audiovisual media systems outside the Western world, most notably in different regions of Asia.
The two key collections of writing on music video are Frith, et al. 1993 and Beebe and Middleton 2007. The differences in focus between these two collections point to concrete shifts in the cultural status of music videos in the fourteen-year interval between the two books, and this reveals important changes in the methods and perspectives brought to bear on them. The book Sound and Vision (Frith, et al. 1993) was conceived in part as a response to arguments made by Jody Berland, Briankle Chang, Dana Polan, and John Fiske in the Journal of Communication Inquiry (Berland 1986, Chang 1986, Polan 1986, and Fiske 1986, all cited under Postmodernism), in which the postmodern character of the music video was a dominant theme. Berland’s emphasis on music had already set her apart from those who argued that the defining trait of music video was its exaggeration of certain characteristics of television in general. In their contributions to Sound and Vision, Andrew Goodwin and Will Straw make their own arguments for the postmodern character of the music video but join the other contributors to Sound and Vision in locating videos within more concrete histories of technology, celebrity, narrative form, and musical genre. Still in print, Sound and Vision sums up the first decade of writing on music video while moving the field slightly away from television studies and toward the emerging field of popular music studies, of which coeditor Simon Frith was a founding figure. Coedited by two scholars of English, Beebe and Middleton 2007 shows the multiple directions in which the study of music video has traveled since the 1990s. First, music video is set within a longer history of attempts to join image to song, as in Amy Herzog’s article on “Soundies,” which were musical shorts of the post–World War Two period, and Norma Coates’s study of Elvis Presley’s appearances on television in the 1950s. Next, the growth of music-oriented cable television systems is set in the context of broader technological transformations in the television industry, such as the global satellite broadcasts of music concerts studied by Lisa Parks. Finally, the geographical scope of this book moves beyond that of the earlier anthology, with articles on the emergence and spread of music videos in Papua, New Guinea; Finland; and Canada.
Beebe, Roger, and Jason Middleton, eds. Medium Cool: Music Video from Soundies to Cellphones. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007.
E-mail Citation »
Anthology of articles by media scholars that follows the directions common in new scholarly writing on music video: outward, to consider music video in contexts other than those of the United States, and backward in time, looking at antecedents of music video in satellite broadcast television concerts and 1950s television variety programs.
Frith, Simon, Andrew Goodwin, and Lawrence Grossberg, eds. Sound and Vision: The Music Video Reader. London: Routledge, 1993.
E-mail Citation »
Early anthology of writings on music video, dominated by scholars of popular music rather than those of television or film, and situating music video within a longer history of music’s relationship to audiovisual media. Key texts include Kobena Mercer’s analysis of Michael Jackson’s Thriller video (pp. 80–93) and Lawrence Grossberg’s essay on cinema, postmodernity, and youth culture (pp. 159–179).
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New Spec A Level Media Studies »
Richard Gent | Friday March 02, 2018
Categories: A Level, AQA A Level, OCR A Level, WJEC A Level, Key Concepts, Audience, Genre, Media Language, Narrative, Representation & Stereotyping, Understanding Media, Magazines, Music Press, Music, Music Distribution, Music Industry, Music Promotion, Music Video, The Press, New Media, Internet, Social Networking, Postmodernism, User Generated Content, New Spec, Theory, Media Theorists, Postmodern Theory, Poststructuralist Theory, Representation Theory, Semiotic Theory, Social Realist Theory, Structuralist Theory, Subcultures
Each term we provide a Core Unit, Exam Unit and NEA Unit based on the Department for Education Media Studies A Level subject content. (February 2016)
The four areas of this theoretical framework, are:
- Media Language: how the media through their forms, codes and conventions communicate meanings
- Representation: how the media portray events, issues, individuals and social groups
- Media Industries: how the media industries’ processes of production, distribution and circulation...
OCR A2 Media Studies G325 Music Video Exemplar Response »
Rob Miller | Tuesday October 28, 2014
Categories: A Level, OCR A Level, OCR A2, Hot Entries, Music, Music Video, Admin, Staffroom, Exemplar Materials
Analyse Representation in one of your Coursework Productions.
I will be analysing my music video that we filmed and edited for our main task which formed part of my Advanced Portfolio in Media – a promotional package for release of an album, to include a music promo video. In class, we studied representation in existing Music Videos such as Miley Cyrus’ Wrecking Ball, Pharrell Williams’ Happy, Katy Perry’s I Kissed a Girl and Lady Gaga and Beyonce’s Telephone – I...[ read full article ] »
AQA AS Unit 2: MEST2 Creating Media 2015 Brief Three »
Rob Miller | Wednesday September 17, 2014
Categories: A Level, AQA A Level, AQA AS, Hot Entries, Music, Music Video, New Media, Digital Media, Production Zone, Video Production
- AQA Brief Three Questionnaire Example.docx
- AQA Storyboard Frame Sheet and Storyboard Example.docx
- Call Sheet Template.xls
The whole point of AQA AS Media Studies coursework is that students will be working to set briefs produced by AQA that are changed every two years – for 2015 assessment there are three briefs, this guide relates to brief three which we will call:
“Producing Promotional Materials for a Band/Music Artist”...[ read full article ] »
OCR GCSE Media Studies B324 Production Portfolio: Video Brief »
Rob Miller | Tuesday September 09, 2014
Categories: GCSE, OCR GCSE, Hot Entries, Music, Music Video, Production Zone, Video Production
- OCR GCSE Media Studes Mini Student Scheme of Work.docx
- Call Sheet Template.xls
B324 is the more creative, production based Controlled Assessment as part of the OCR GCSE Media Studies course – if taught over two years it is recommended that the pupils start B324 in year 11 allowing for 10 weeks minimum (dependent on weekly contact time) to complete the project which comprises 30% of the qualification (see example Year 2 mini...[ read full article ] »
BTEC Level 3 Creative Media Production: Music Video Production »
Rob Miller | Friday February 22, 2013
Categories: Nationals, BTEC Nationals, BTEC Nationals Level 3, Level 3 Creative Media Production, Hot Entries, Music, Music Video, Production Zone, Video Production
For this project you have to research and develop your ideas further and actually make a music video for a chosen new artist. The record label has said that in addition to the proposal and team file you have produced you also have to produce the following for them:
Assignment 1: What are Music Videos for? (Learning Outcome 1 - Understand the Purpose of Music Videos)
Because the record label are paying you a lot of money to produce the video they want you to put...[ read full article ] »
Lady Gaga Case Study »
Rob Miller | Monday September 10, 2012
Categories: A Level, OCR A Level, OCR AS, Key Concepts, Audience, Genre, Ideology, Institutions, Media Language, Narrative, Representation & Stereotyping, Music, Music Distribution, Music Industry, Music Promotion, Music Video, The Press, New Media, Convergence, Digital Media, Integration, Internet, Social Networking, Making Money, New Technologies, Website Analysis, Social Networking Analysis, Web Pages
Lady Gaga – Sony Music Entertainment | Universal Music Group
The music industry can be split into mainstream and independent artists with the so called ‘Big Four’ (now the Big Three) controlling the market. In a similar way that the oligopoly of film distributors control film distribution (Warners, 20th Century Fox, Paramount, Universal, Sony, Disney) mainstream music distribution is controlled by the Universal Music Group, Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group...[ read full article ] »
Lady Gaga Cross Media Case Study »
Rob Miller | Wednesday June 13, 2012
Categories: A Level, AQA A Level, AQA AS, Advertising, Viral Advertising, Key Concepts, Audience, Genre, Media Language, Narrative, Representation & Stereotyping, Hot Entries, Music, Fan Websites, Music Distribution, Music Industry, Music Promotion, Music Video, New Media, Convergence, Digital Media, Integration, Internet, Social Networking, Making Money, New Technologies, Website Analysis, Social Networking Analysis, Web Pages
Lady Gaga – Sony Music Entertainment | Universal Music Group
For your AQA AS Media Studies Cross Media Study you are required to understand a range of texts across 3 different media platforms – Broadcasting, E Media and Print with notions of institution underpinning the background to production e.g. funding, ownership, use of technology and distribution.
Exam questions often directly ask students to examine how institutions are represented across the three platforms.
This...[ read full article ] »
WJEC GCSE Media Studies Music: Industry Websites & Magazines Overview »
Rob Miller | Tuesday April 05, 2011
Categories: GCSE, WJEC GCSE, WJEC GCSE Media Studies, Hot Entries, Music, British Pop Music, Fan Websites, Music Distribution, Music Promotion, Music Video, The Press, Production Zone, Print Production, Video Production
This page should provide you with an index to the information we have on Edusites Media which relates directly to the 2012 WJEC GCSE Media Studies External Assessment on Music: Industry Websites & Magazines.
This page also contains external links to support materials on the WJEC site.
- WJEC GCSE Media Studies Unit 1 Scheme of Work: Music | Industry Websites | Magazines
- Understanding The Music Industry & Music Industry Websites
Case Studies[ read full article ] »
2012 WJEC GCSE Media Studies Unit 1 Scheme of Work: Music | Industry Websites | Magazines »
Rob Miller | Thursday March 24, 2011
Categories: GCSE, WJEC GCSE, WJEC GCSE Media Studies, Hot Entries, Music, British Pop Music, Fan Websites, Music Distribution, Music Promotion, Music Video, The Press
- WJEC GCSE Media Studies 2012 Unit 1 SoW - Music.doc
- WJEC GCSE Media Studies Music: Industry Websites & Magazines Overview
- Visual/Aural language - Semiotics
- Music Genre Codes and Conventions and Narrative
- History of Popular Music
- Representation in Music Websites and Music Videos
- The Music Industry
- Music Magazines
- Analysis, skills of Deconstruction, Note taking, Group work
- Identifying iconography, narrative theory and...
WJEC GCSE Media Studies Mock Exam Pop Videos & Fan Websites »
Clare O'Carroll | Monday December 13, 2010
Categories: GCSE, WJEC GCSE, WJEC GCSE Media Studies, Hot Entries, Music, Fan Websites, Music Video
Click on the link below to download a mock exam and mark scheme for WJEC GCSE Media Studies Pop Videos & Fan Websites.
- WJEC GCSE Media Studies Music Videos & Fan Websites Mock Exam.doc
- WJEC GCSE Media Studies Music Videos and Fan Websites Mock Exam Mark Scheme.doc
WJEC GCSE - Music Videos »
Jeremy Orlebar | Friday October 22, 2010
Categories: GCSE, WJEC GCSE, WJEC GCSE Media Studies, Music, Music Video
Editing within music videos can be explored which emphasises and draws attention that the shots have been joined together, in particular by using the jump-cut so that the effect is abrupt usually followed by something that the audience is not expecting.
Look at MediaEdu’sMusic Video Pre-Production and Music Video Production
The pace of the editing being dictated by the visuals is another area to explore. How many cuts are visible in an average music video?...[ read full article ] »
Genre and Popular Music Video »
Stephen Hill | Tuesday August 24, 2010
Categories: Key Concepts, Genre, Music, Music Video
Click on the link below to download a PDF booklet you can print out.
WJEC GCSE Exam Topic - Music 2011 & 2012 »
Jeremy Orlebar | Sunday August 22, 2010
Categories: GCSE, WJEC GCSE, WJEC GCSE Media Studies, Magazines, Music Press, Music, British Pop Music, Music Promotion, Music Video, The Press
Section A - Music Video
Section B - Music Fan Websites
Section A - Music Industry Websites
Section B - Music Magazines
The exam (40% of the final mark) 2 hours 15 minutes. The topic is music. Candidates will be expected to study the topic in a way which reflects the convergent nature of contemporary media.
The paper is divided into two sections.
Section A: Thinking about the Media – Investigating
This will assess candidates on their knowledge and...[ read full article ] »
OCR Unit G325: Revision Guide - Critical Perspectives in Media - Thrillers & Music Video »
Stephen Hill | Monday April 26, 2010
Categories: A Level, OCR A Level, OCR A2, Film, Thrillers, Hot Entries, Music, Music Video, Other Topics
Click on the link below to download a revision guide you can print out.
Origins Of The Music Video »
Jeremy Orlebar | Thursday September 24, 2009
Categories: Music, Music Video, Other Topics
WHO INVENTED THE MUSIC VIDEO?
with thanks to the BBC website h2g2
The music video is generally considered to have been born on the BBC’sTop of the Pops in November 1975. Glamorous rock band Queen found they were unable to appear on Top of the Pops as they were on tour.
They worked over two days and spent the considerable sum at that time of £4,000 on recording their latest single, Bohemian Rhapsody, on the relatively new medium of video tape.
There were no home video...[ read full article ] »
Music Video Pre-Production »
Jeremy Orlebar | Wednesday September 23, 2009
Categories: GCSE, Music, Music Video, Other Topics, Production Zone, Video Production, Skills
Music videos offer great opportunities to be creative on video using low cost equipment. You can work in just about any genre or style you like, as long as it has some relationship to the song.
Most of the hard work is usually done in postproduction, but that certainly does not mean you should skate over the shooting; it is essential you have enough shot material to work on in editing.
What is a music video trying to do?
A successful music video has to work at two levels...[ read full article ] »
Music Video Production »
Jeremy Orlebar | Tuesday September 22, 2009
Categories: Music, Music Video, Other Topics, Production Zone, Video Production
You will have selected a song track which excites you. You will have some ideas about how you want to visualise this song.
You will have decided on whether you want to tell a story, create an atmospheric video, or present the song in some new innovative way, or use another form of visualisation such as a parody or pastiche.
It’s a good idea to write down the lyrics, so that you know what the song is about.
Your next job is to create a STORYBOARD of your...[ read full article ] »
Music Video Post-Production »
Jeremy Orlebar | Monday September 21, 2009
Categories: GCSE, Music, Music Video, Other Topics, Production Zone, Video Production
You have shot your video. You have a lot of pictures on DV tape, or hard disc, and you now have to edit these pictures to your chosen music track.
In other words you have completed production, and are ready to go into post-production.
Post-production is everything you do after the production of the video. The production is getting all the shots in the can. Post-production means editing the shots to the music, and it also means marketing and promoting your...[ read full article ] »
Music Video & Media Theory »
Stephen Hill | Sunday September 20, 2009
Categories: Key Concepts, Music, Music Video, Theory, Misc Theory
Fig 12: The democratisation of creative technology: reinstating key conventions of moving image and sound.
The music video is a classic example of a media industry that flourished on the back of technological advance.
The proliferation of home VCR and satellite technology created a fertile environment in which the new medium flourished, eating up the spare capacity in the schedules. Indeed, when MTV was launched in 1981 it only had access to a couple of hundred videos; by...[ read full article ] »
Pop Music Downloads »
Richard Gent | Tuesday August 18, 2009
Categories: Music, Music Video, Other Topics
Pop Music Analysing Music Video Questions.doc
Pop Music Analysing Pop Music Videos.doc
Pop Music | GCSE Music Video Moodboards.doc
Pop Music | GCSE Music Video Project Ideas.doc
Pop Music | Intro.doc
Pop Music | Key Conventions.doc
Pop Music on TV | Checklist.doc
Pop Music on TV | Intro.doc
Pop Music on TV | Scheduling and Audience.doc
Pop Music | Scheme of Work HND.doc
Pop Music | Teachers Approach.ppt
Pop Music | Top Camera Shots.doc
Understanding Pop Bands & The Music Industry in Year 9 »
Carl Beck | Tuesday June 02, 2009
Categories: KS3, Year 9, Music, British Pop Music, Fan Websites, Music Distribution, Music Promotion, Music Video, The Press, Understanding Media, Understanding Key Topics
In Term 3 of Year 9, we introduce the students to Pop Bands & The Music Industry. The students are required to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding by researching and analysing existing pop bands, CD covers, promo videos and tour posters. They are helped to develop their understanding of musical genres and how this affects a band’s actual and perceived/projected identity. The students then use this newly acquired knowledge to plan, mock-up and develop their own...[ read full article ] »
Understanding Pop Bands in Year 7 »
Carl Beck | Tuesday June 02, 2009
Categories: KS3, Year 7, Music, British Pop Music, Fan Websites, Music Distribution, Music Promotion, Music Video, The Press, Understanding Media, Understanding Key Topics
In Term 3, we introduce the students to Pop Bands and the students are required to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding by creating their own band.
This unit includes profiling; the analysis and design of CD cases and covers; tour posters; creating a mix using Garage Band (a Mac application).
Every sixth lesson the students sit a formal assessment and are awarded a National Curriculum level using our tailor-made assessment structure.
The skills are introduced by...[ read full article ] »
Music Links »
Richard Gent | Monday May 11, 2009
Categories: GCSE, Key Concepts, Institutions, Music, British Pop Music, Music Video, Other Topics, Production Zone, Audio Production, Music Press, Music Press History, Music Press Institution, Music Press Language, Music Press Links One, Pop Music on TV
EMI Group EMI is the world’s largest independent music company.
musicovery.com Free access to a range of music on the Internet
Copyright and You. How Copyright Issues Can Affect Your Media Coursework. »
David Smailes | Thursday April 09, 2009
Categories: Key Concepts, Institutions, Copyright, Media Language, Magazines, Music Press, Music, Music Video, Other Topics, Television, Pop Music on TV
If your Media Studies production is an audio visual piece then it will most likely involve the use of some music. This might be in the background of an advert, to make a film trailer more exciting, or as the focus of a music video.
What you need to remember is that even though it’s incredibly easy to download music and sound effects from the Internet, it’s not always a good idea to use those files in your media production.
In this article, I’ll give you the information you...[ read full article ] »